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L2 Graphic Design Foundations: File Types & Presentation Styles

File naming protocols:

  • Be Logical
  • Dates: Year_Month_Day
  • Client Name / Job number
  • Use Version Control
  • ie: 190301_CP_web_v1.png

File Types:

  • PDF – Portable Document Format – Used for wide distribution of documents and pre-press.
  • GIF – Graphics Interchange Format – Image compression format
  • TIFF– Tagged Image File Format – Uncompressed raw image format
  • JPEG– Joint Photography Experts Group – Lossy compression format for images
  • MPEG – Moving Picture Experts Group – compression format for moving images
  • PNG – Portable Network Graphics – Lossless compression format for images
  • AVI – Audio Video Interleave – Audio format
  • EPS – Encapsulated Postscript Format (Raster and Vector)
  • AI – Adobe Illustrator file (Raster)

Raster: Continuous file type made up of pixels i.e: photograph. A pixel is a single point or the smallest single element in a display device. Not infinitely scaleable (High Rez/Low Rez). Blowing up a low Rez image usually leads to PIXELATION.

Vector: Mathematical file format that is infinitely scalable. Vector images are mathematical calculations from one point to another that form lines and shapes. Raster images are made of pixels. If you zoom in to a raster image you may start to see a lot of little tiny squares. 

Formal Presentations

The Formal presentation is the traditional setting for PowerPoint, Keynote and the multitude of other presentation software packages. Used properly, these tools can be incredibly powerful and guide an equally formal audience down your chosen path, to a mutually satisfying conclusion.

Typical presentation scenarios that fall into the Formal category are bids and pitches, conferences and investor presentations. They have one thing in common: the presenter speaks and the audience listens, and then (ideally) a Q&A session kicks off at the conclusion of the presentation.

In short, the majority of the presentation is broadcast rather than a conversation.



Informal Presentations

Paradoxically, this is both the most natural form of communication but also the most difficult presentation approach to get right. The Informal presentation still requires sufficient structure to guide the presenter and their audience from A to B. However, you must do so in such a way that does not impact the ‘cosy/non-threatening’ environment that both parties enjoy.

The power of the Informal presentation is that rather than pulling out your laptop and firing up PowerPoint – thereby killing the nice, informal environment you’ve created – you are able to tell/sell your story using no more than a napkin and a pen.



Presentation Skills:

1. Show your Passion and Connect with your Audience

It’s hard to be relaxed and be yourself when you’re nervous.

But time and again, the great presenters say that the most important thing is to connect with your audience, and the best way to do that is to let your passion for the subject shine through.

Be honest with the audience about what is important to you and why it matters.

Be enthusiastic and honest, and the audience will respond.

2. Focus on your Audience’s Needs

Your presentation needs to be built around what your audience is going to get out of the presentation.

As you prepare the presentation, you always need to bear in mind what the audience needs and wants to know, not what you can tell them.

While you’re giving the presentation, you also need to remain focused on your audience’s response and react to that.

You need to make it easy for your audience to understand and respond.

3. Keep it Simple: Concentrate on your Core Message

When planning your presentation, you should always keep in mind the question:

What is the key message (or three key points) for my audience to take away?

You should be able to communicate that key message very briefly.

Some experts recommend a 30-second ‘elevator summary’, others that you can write it on the back of a business card, or say it in no more than 15 words.


Whichever rule you choose, the important thing is to keep your core message focused and brief.

And if what you are planning to say doesn’t contribute to that core message, don’t say it.

4. Smile and Make Eye Contact with your Audience

This sounds very easy, but a surprisingly large number of presenters fail to do it.

If you smile and make eye contact, you are building rapport, which helps the audience to connect with you and your subject. It also helps you to feel less nervous because you are talking to individuals, not to a great mass of unknown people.

To help you with this, make sure that you don’t turn down all the lights so that only the slide screen is visible. Your audience needs to see you as well as your slides.

5. Start Strongly

The beginning of your presentation is crucial. You need to grab your audience’s attention and hold it.

They will give you a few minutes’ grace in which to entertain them before they start to switch off if you’re dull. So don’t waste that on explaining who you are. Start by entertaining them.

Try a story (see tip 7 below), or an attention-grabbing (but useful) image on a slide.

6. Remember the 10-20-30 Rule for Slideshows


This is a tip from Guy Kawasaki of Apple. He suggests that slideshows should:

  • Contain no more than 10 slides;
  • Last no more than 20 minutes; and
  • Use a font size of no less than 30 point.

This last is particularly important as it stops you trying to put too much information on any one slide. This whole approach avoids the dreaded ‘Death by PowerPoint’.

As a general rule, slides should be the sideshow to you, the presenter. A good set of slides should be no use without the presenter, and they should definitely contain less, rather than more, information, expressed simply.

If you need to provide more information, create a bespoke handout and give it out after your presentation.

7. Tell Stories

Human beings are programmed to respond to stories.

Stories help us to pay attention, and also to remember things. If you can use stories in your presentation, your audience is more likely to engage and to remember your points afterwards. It is a good idea to start with a story, but there is a wider point too: you need your presentation to act as a story.

Think about what story you are trying to tell your audience, and create your presentation to tell it.

Finding The Story Behind Your Presentation

To effectively tell a story, focus on using at least one of the two most basic storytelling mechanics in your presentation:

  1. Focusing On Characters – People have stories; things, data, and objects do not. So ask yourself “who” is directly involved in your topic that you can use as the focal point of your story.

    For example, instead of talking about cars (your company’s products), you could focus on specific characters like:

    • The drivers the car is intended for – people looking for speed and adventure
    • The engineers who went out of their way to design the most cost-effective car imaginable


  2. A Changing Dynamic – A story needs something to change along the way. So ask yourself “What is not as it should be?” and answer with what you are going to do about it (or what you did about it).

    For example…

    • Did hazardous road conditions inspire you to build a rugged, all-terrain jeep that any family could afford?
    • Did a complicated and confusing food labelling system lead you to establish a colour-coded nutritional index so that anybody could easily understand it?


8. Use your Voice Effectively

The spoken word is actually a pretty inefficient means of communication because it uses only one of your audience’s five senses. That’s why presenters tend to use visual aids, too. But you can help to make the spoken word better by using your voice effectively.

Varying the speed at which you talk, and emphasising changes in pitch and tone all help to make your voice more interesting and hold your audience’s attention.


For more about this, see our page on Effective Speaking.

9. Use your Body Too

It has been estimated that more than three-quarters of communication is non-verbal.

That means that as well as your tone of voice, your body language is crucial to getting your message across. Make sure that you are giving the right messages: body language to avoid includes crossed arms, hands held behind your back or in your pockets, and pacing the stage.

Make your gestures open and confident, and move naturally around the stage, and among the audience too, if possible.

10. Relax, Breathe and Enjoy

If you find presenting difficult, it can be hard to be calm and relaxed about doing it.

One option is to start by concentrating on your breathing. Slow it down, and make sure that you’re breathing fully. Make sure that you continue to pause for breath occasionally during your presentation too.

Source: [03/

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